From the Caltech Policy on Research Misconduct:
Research misconduct is defined as fabrication, falsification or plagiarism in proposing, performing or reviewing research, or in reporting research results.
- Fabrication is making up or recording data or results and recording or reporting them.
- Falsification is manipulating research materials, equipment or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record.
- Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person’s ideas, processes, results or words without giving appropriate credit.
- Research misconduct does not include honest error or differences of opinion.
A finding of research misconduct requires that:
- There be a significant departure from accepted practices of the scientific community for maintaining the research record;
- The misconduct be committed intentionally, or knowingly, or in reckless disregard of accepted practices; and
- The allegation be proven by a preponderance of evidence.
- Anil Potti, Duke Cancer Researcher Accused of Misconduct, Resigns (huffingtonpost.com)
- Queen’s University papers at centre of self-plagiarism dispute (canada.com)
- Fraud investigation rocks Danish university (nature.com)
- ‘Universal standards’ for research integrity may have unintended consequences (eurekalert.org)
- MMR Autism Scare, the accused were investigating themselves (medicalnewstoday.com)
- A new code of conduct for researchers (eurekalert.org)
- “Plagiarism in PhD thesis taints a popular German minister” and related posts (nanopolitan.blogspot.com)